Review articles 

1. Weinstein AG. The potential of asthma adherence management to enhance asthma guidelines. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011;106:283-291.  

2. Ingerski LM, Hente EA, Modi AC, Hommel KA. Electronic measurement of medication adherence in pediatric chronic illness: A review of measures. J Pediatr. 2011;159(4):528-534.

3. Boulet LP, Vervloet D, Magar Y, Foster JM. Adherence: The Goal to Control Asthma. Clin Chest Med. 2012;33:405-417.  

4. Pritchard JN, Nikander K. Impact of intervention and feedback on adherence to treatment. Respiratory Drug Delivery 2012;271-282.  

5. Chan AH, Reddel HK, Apter A, Eakin M, Riekert K, Foster JM. Adherence monitoring and e-health: How clinicians and researchers can use technology to promote inhaler adherence for asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(5):446-454.  

6. Klok T, Kaptein AA, Brand PL. Improving adherence in paediatric respiratory disease. Breathe. 2013;9(4):268-77 

7. Morton RW, Everard ML, Elphick HE. Adherence in childhood asthma: the elephant in the room. Arch Dis Child. 2014. Downloaded from 02 June 2014 as 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306243.  

8. Howard S, Lang A, Patel M, Sharples S, Shaw D. Electronic monitoring of adherence to inhaled medication in asthma. Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews. 2014;10:50-63.  

9. Lavorini F, Fontana GA, Usmani OS. New inhaler devices – the good, the bad and the ugly. Respiration. 2014;88:3-15. DOI: 10.1159/000363390 

10. Ehrick JD, Wylie J, Goodey AP, Li Y, Liu O, Donovan B. Orally inhaled fixed-dose combination products for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: not simple math. Therapeutic Delivery. 2014;5(3):297-317. 

11. Chan AH, Harrison J, Black PN, Mitchell EA, Foster JM. Using electronic monitoring devices to measure inhaler adherence: A practical guide for clinicians. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2015;3:335-49.  

12. Anderson WC, Szefler SJ. New and future strategies to improve asthma control in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136(4):848-59. 

13. Ari A. Patient education and adherence to aerosol therapy. Respir Care. 2015;60(6):941-957 

14. Berlinski A. Assessing new technologies in aerosol medicine: strengths and limitations. Respir Care. 2015;60(6):833-849. DOI: 10.4187/respcare.03551 

15. Klok T, Kaptein AA, Brand PL. Non-adherence in children with asthma reviewed: the need for improvement of asthma care and medical education. Pediatric allergy and immunology. 2015;136(4):848-59 

16. van Boven JFM, Trappenburg JCA, van der Molen T, Chavannes NH. Towards tailored and targeted adherence assessment to optimize asthma management. npj Primary Care Respir Med. 2015;25(15046). DOI: 10.1038/npjpcrm.2015.46 

17. Pritchard JN, Nicholls C. Emerging technologies for electronic monitoring of adherence, inhaler competence, and true adherence. J Aerosol Med & Pulmonary Drug Delivery. 2015;28(2):69-81. DOI: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1163 

18. Weinstein AG. Improving adherence to asthma therapies. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2015;21(1):86-94. DOI: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000128 

19. Kikidis D, Konstantinos V, Tzovaras D, Usmani OS. The digital asthma patient: The history and future of inhaler based health monitoring devices. J Aerosol Med and Pulmonary Drug Delivery 2016. 

20. Wallin M, Tagami T, Chen L, Yang, M, Chan HK. Pulmonary drug delivery to older people. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2017 

21. Sutherland G, Wilson D, Cho M. Track and Remind: Can connected devices improve patient medication adherence? RDD Europe 2017;Volume 1:65-76  

22. Mohammadi D. Smart inhalers: will they help to improve asthma care? The Pharmaceutical Journal 7 April 2017.  

Validation Studies 

23. Burgess SW, Wilson SS, Cooper DM, Sly PD, Davadason SG. In vitro evaluation of an asthma dosing device: The smart-inhaler. Resp Med. 2006;100(5):841-845.  

24. Patel M, Pilcher J, Chan A, Perrin K, Black P, Beasley R. Six-month in vitro validation of a metered-dose inhaler electronic monitoring device: Implications for asthma clinical trial use. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1420-1422.  

25. Foster JM, Smith L, Usherwood T, Sawyer SM, Rand CS, Reddel HK. The reliability and patient acceptability of the SmartTrack device: A new electronic monitor and reminder device for metered dose inhalers. J Asthma. 2012;49(6):657-662.  

26. Pilcher J, Shirtcliffe P, Patel M, Cripps T, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Three month validation of a turbuhaler electronic monitoring device: implications for asthma clinical trial use. BMJ Open Resp Res. 2015;2(e000097). doi:10.1136/bmjresp-2015-000097.  

27. Gradinarsky L, Lööf T. Inhalation adherence monitoring using Smart electronic add-on device. International Conference on Software Testing 2014, November 03-05, Athens, Greece. DOI 10.4018/icst.mobihealth.2014.257364  

28. Pilcher J, Holliday M, Ebmeiser S, McKinstry S, Messaoudi F, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Validation of a metered dose inhaler electronic monitoring device: implications for asthma clinical trial use. BMJ Open Resp Res. 2013;3:e000128 

Pediatric Studies 

29. Burgess SW, Sly PD, Cooper PD, Devadason SG. Novel spacer device does not improve adherence in childhood asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007;42:736-739.  

30. Burgess SW, Sly PD, Morawska A, Devadason SG. Assessing adherence and factors associated with adherence in young children with asthma. Respirology. 2008;13:559-563.  

31. Burgess SW, Sly PD, Devadason SG. Providing feedback on adherence increases use of preventive medication by asthmatic children. J Asthma. 2010;47:198-201. 

32. Schultz A, Sly PD, Zhang G, Venter A, le Souëf PN, Devadason SG. Incentive device improves spacer technique but not clinical outcome in preschool children with asthma. J Paediat Child Health. 2012;48(1):52-56.  

33. Schultz A, Sly PD, Zhang G, Venter A, Davadason SG, le Souëf PN. Usefulness of parental response to questions about adherence to prescribed inhaled corticosteroids in young children. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97(12):1092-1096.  

34. Klok T, Kaptein AA, Duiverman EJ, Brand PL. High inhaled corticosteroids adherence in childhood asthma: the role of medication beliefs. Eur Respir J. 2012;40(5):1149-1155.  

35. Quak W, Klok T, Kaptein AA, Duiverman EJ, Brand PL. Preschool children with high adherence to inhaled corticosteroids for asthma do not show behavioural problems. Acta Paediat. 2012;101(11);1156-1160. 

36. Klok T, Kaptein AA, Duiverman E, Oldenhof FS, Brand PLP. General practitioners’ prescribing behaviour as a determinant of poor persistence with inhaled corticosteroids in children with respiratory symptoms: mixed methods study. BMJ Open. 2013;3:e00231011 

37. Klok T, Kaptein AA, Duiverman EJ, Brand PL. It’s the adherence, stupid (that determines asthma control in preschool children)! Eur Respir J. 2014;43(3):783-791.  

38. Klok T, Lubbers S, Kaptein AA, Brand PL. Every parent tells a story: why non-adherence may persist in children receiving guideline-based comprehensive asthma care. J Asthma. 2014;51(1):106-112 

39. Keemink YS, Klok T, Brand PLP. Long-term adherence to daily controller medication in children with asthma: the role of outpatient clinic visits. Pediatric Pulmonology December 2014. DOI 10.1002/ppul.23138  

40. *Chan AHY, Stewart AWS, Harrison J, Camargo C, Black PN, Mitchell EA. The effect of an inhaler with ringtones on asthma control and school attendance in children. Lancet Respir Med. 2015;3:210-219.  

41. Friedman D, Masek B, Barreto E, Baer L, Lapey A, Budge E, McQuaid E. Fathers and asthma care: paternal involvement, beliefs, and management skills. J Pediatric Psychology. 2015:1-11. DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsv035 

42. Klok T, Kaptein AA, Duiverman EJ, Brand PL. Long-term adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma: observational study. Respir Med. 2015;109:1114-1119. 

43. Visser R, Brusse-Keizer M, van der Palen J, Klok T, Thio BJ. The impact of discussing exercise test results of young asthmatic children on adherence to maintenance medication. J Asthma. 2015;52(7):743-748. DOI: 10.3109/02770903.2015.1008141 

44. Wardenier MRA, Klok T, de Groot EP, Brand PLP. Height growth in children with asthma treated with guideline-recommended dosages of fluticasone and electronically assessed adherence. Arch Dis Child. 2015;0:1-3. DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2015-309654 

45 *Morton RW, Elphick HE, Rigby AS, Daw WJ, King DA, Smith LJ, Everard ML. STAAR: a randomised controlled trial of electronic adherence monitoring with reminder alarms and feedback to improve clinical outcomes for children with asthma. Thorax Online First. 2016;0:1-8 

46. Kenyon CC, Chang J, Wynter S, Fowler JC, Long J, Bryant-Stephens TC. Electronic adherence monitoring in a high-utilizing pediatric asthma cohort: a feasibility study. JMIR Res Protoc. 2016;5(2):e132 

47. Howard S, Lang A, Sharples S, Shaw D. See I told you I was taking it! – attitudes of adolescents with asthma towards a device monitoring their inhaler use: implications for future design. Applied Ergonomics. 2017;58:224-237 

48. Garcia-Marcos P, Brand P, Kaptein A, Klok T. Is the MARS questionnaire a reliable measure of medication adherence in childhood asthma? J Asthma. 2016;53(10):1085-1089 

49. Jochmann A, Artusio L, Jamalzadeh A, Nagakumar P, Delgado-Eckert E, Saglani S, Bush A, Frey U, Fleming LJ. Electronic monitoring of adherence to inhaled corticosteroids: an essential tool in identifying severe asthma in children. Eur Respir J. 2017;50:1700910 

Adult Studies 

50. *Charles T, Quinn D, Weatherall M, Aldington S, Beasley R, Holt S. An audiovisual reminder function improves adherence with inhaled corticosteroid therapy in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119:811-816.  

51. Perrin K, Williams M, Wijesinghe M, James K, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Randomized controlled trial of adherence with a single or combination inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-agonist inhaler therapy in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:505-510.  

52. *Foster JM, Smith L, Bosnic-Anticevich SZ, Usherwood T, Sawyer SM, Rand CS, Reddel HK. Identifying patient-specific beliefs and behaviours for conversations about adherence in asthma. Int Med J. 2012;42:e136–e144.  

53. Powell H, Murphy VE, Taylor DR, Hensley MJ, McCaffrey K, Giles W, et al. Management of asthma in pregnancy guided by measurement of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378:983-990.  

54. Turton JA, Glasgow NJ, Brannan JD. Feasibility and acceptability of using bronchial hyperresponsiveness to manage asthma in primary care: a pilot study. Prim Care Respir J. 2012;21(1):28-34. 

55. Patel M, Pilcher J, Travers J, Perrin K, Shaw D, Black P, et al. Use of a metered-dose inhaler electronic monitoring in real-world asthma randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1(1):83-91.  

56. Patel M, Pilcher J, Pritchard A, Perrin K, Travers J, Shaw D, et al. Efficacy and safety of maintenance and reliever combination budesonide-formoterol inhaler in patients with asthma at risk of severe exacerbations: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:32-42.  

57. Patel M, Pilcher J, Reddel HK, Pritchard A, Corin A, Helm C, et al. Metrics of salbutamol use as predictors of future adverse outcomes in asthma. Clinical & Experimental Allergy. 2013;43:1144-1151.  

58. Patel M, Pilcher J, Munro C, Hosking A, Pritchard A, Shaw D, et al. Short-acting β-agonist use as a marker of current asthma control. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013;1:370-377. 

59. Patel M, Perrin K, Pritchard A, Williams M, Wijesinghe M, Weatherall M, et al. Accuracy of patient self-report as a measure of inhaled asthma medication use. Respirology. 2013;18:546-552.  

60. Goeman D, Jenkins C, Crane M, Pail E, Douglass J. Educational intervention for older people with asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Patient education and counselling. 2013;93:586-595 

61. Foster JM, Smith L, Usherwood T, Sawyer SM, Reddel HK. Inhaler reminders improve adherence with controller treatment in primary care patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(6):1260-1268.e3. 

62. Patel M, Pilcher J, Reddel HK, Qi V, Mackey B, Tranquilino T, Shaw D, Black P, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Predictors of severe exacerbations, poor asthma control, and β-agonist overuse for patients with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2014;2(6):751-758 

63. Patel M, Pilcher J, Hancox RJ, Sheahan D, Pritchard A, Braithwaite I, et al. The use of β2-agonist therapy before hospital attendance for severe asthma exacerbations: a post-hoc analysis. npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine. 2015; 25(14099). DOI: 10.1038/npjpcrm.2014.99 

64. Pilcher J, Patel M, Smith A, Davies C, Pritchard A, Travers J, Black P, Weatherall M, Beasley R, Harwood M, SMART Study Group. Combination budesonide/formoterol inhaler as maintenance and reliever therapy in Māori with asthma. Respirology. 2014;19:842-851 

65. Bourbeau J, Sedeno MF, Metz K, Li PZ, Pinto L. Early COPD exacerbation treatments with combination of ICS and LABA for patients presenting with mild-to-moderate worsening of dyspnea. COPD: J Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. 2016. DOI: 10.3109/15412555.2015.1101435 

66. Pilcher J, Patel M, Reddel HK, Pritchard A, Black P, Shaw D, et al. Effect of smoking status on the efficacy of the SMART regimen in high risk asthma. Respirology. 2016. DOI: 10.111/resp.12740 

67. Plaza V, Plaza V, Fernández-Rodríguez C, Melero C, Cosío, Entrenas LM, de Llano LP, Gutiérrez-Pereyra, Tarragona E, Palomino R, López-Vina A. Validation of the ‘Test of the Adherence to Inhalers’ (TAI) for asthma and COPD patients. J Aerosol Med & Pulmonary Drug Delivery. 2016;29(2):142-152 

68. Tay TR, Lee J, Radhakrishna N, Hore-Lacy F, Stirling R, Hoy R, Dabscheck E, O’Hehire R, Hew M. A structured approach to specialist-referred difficult asthma patients improves control of comorbidities and enhances asthma outcomes. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):956-964. 

69. Pilcher J, Patel M, Pritchard A, Thayabaran D, Ebmeier S, Shaw D, Black P, Braithwaite I, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Beta-agonist overuse and delay in obtaining medical review in high risk asthma: a secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial. npj Prim Care Respir Med. 2017;27(1):33. 

70. Foster JM, Reddel HK, Usherwood T, Sawyer SM, Smith L. Patient-perceived acceptability and behaviour change benefits of inhaler reminders and adherence feedback: A qualitative study. Respir Med. 2017;129:39-45 

71. Weinstein A, Gentile D, Singh A, Skoner D, Maiolo J, Sharara R, Ma K, Cheema T, Butler E, Kong A. Preliminary evaluation of an adult asthma adherence management program. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2017;195:A7619  

72. Broadbent E, Garett J, Jepsen N, Ogilvie V, Ahn H, Robinson H Peri K, Kerse N, Rouse P, Pillai A, MacDonald B. Using Robots at Home to Support Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2018; 20(2):e45 
*Studies investigating impact of Smartinhaler™ devices on patient adherence and/or asthma outcomes